What are the complications of infants of diabetic mothers?

Infants of diabetic mothers are prone to various neonatal adverse outcomes, including metabolic and hematologic disorders, respiratory distress, cardiac disorders and neurologic impairment due to perinatal asphyxia and birth traumas, among others.

What complications does an infant face coming from a diabetic mother?

Infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) are often larger than other babies, especially if diabetes is not well-controlled. This may make vaginal birth harder and may increase the risk for nerve injuries and other trauma during birth. Also, cesarean births are more likely.

Which of the following are common problems of infants with diabetic mothers?

The following problems may happen to your baby after he or she is born:

  • Large size (macrosomia). …
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
  • Low blood calcium.
  • Low blood iron.
  • High levels of red blood cells and thickened blood.
  • High levels of bilirubin from the breakdown of red blood cells.
  • Birth defects. …
  • Premature birth.
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What happens to the baby if the mother has diabetes?

This is done between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy. Having diabetes during pregnancy can harm your baby. Your baby’s treatment depends on how well you control your blood sugar in the last part of pregnancy and during labor and delivery. Controlling your blood sugar is the best way to reduce your baby’s risks.

Which is the most common birth defect in an infant of diabetic mother?

They followed 609 diabetic pregnancies and found that 3.6% of the women delivered infants with cardiovascular defects, the most common being transposition of great arteries, truncus arteriosus and tricuspid atresia. Janssen et al[18] studied 1511 PGD cases, with congenital birth defects prevalence of 7.2%.

What other problems should be monitored for in infants of diabetic mothers?

Infants of diabetic mothers are prone to various neonatal adverse outcomes, including metabolic and hematologic disorders, respiratory distress, cardiac disorders and neurologic impairment due to perinatal asphyxia and birth traumas, among others.

What characteristics do you expect the infant of the diabetic mother to have?

Although the infant is generally asymptomatic, symptoms may include jitteriness, irritability, apathy, poor feeding, high-pitched or weak cry, hypotonia, or frank seizure activity. Hypoglycemia that requires intervention may persist for as long as 1 week.

Why do infants of diabetic mothers have cardiomyopathy?

In infants of diabetic mothers, HCM is thought to arise from the effects of excess insulin. The finding of a very similar HCM in infants with congenital hyperinsulinism is consistent with a causal role for fetal hyperinsulinaemia in this cardiac abnormality.

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Why do infants of diabetic mothers have polycythemia?

Polycythaemia is an important problem that is observed in some infants born to diabetic mothers: fetal hyperinsulinaemia and elevated Epo levels, due to intrauterine chronic hypoxia, may cause polycythaemia in these infants.

Why do diabetic mothers get polycythemia in infants?

A central venous hemoglobin concentration greater than 20 g/dL or a hematocrit value greater than 65% (polycythemia) is not uncommon in infants of diabetic mothers and is related to glycemic control. Hyperglycemia is a powerful stimulus to fetal erythropoietin production, mediated by decreased fetal oxygen tension.

Can a diabetic mother have a healthy baby?

If a woman with diabetes keeps her blood sugar well controlled before and during pregnancy, she can increase her chances of having a healthy baby. Controlling blood sugar also reduces the chance that a woman will develop common problems of diabetes, or that the problems will get worse during pregnancy.

Does insulin affect the baby?

Because of the extra insulin made by the baby’s pancreas, newborns may have very low blood glucose levels at birth and are also at higher risk for breathing problems. Babies born with excess insulin become children who are at risk for obesity and adults who are at risk for type 2 diabetes.

What birth defects are caused by diabetes?

Among the defects in children born to women with diabetes are heart problems, brain and spinal defects, oral clefts, kidney and gastrointestinal tract defects, and limb deficiencies. Diabetes diagnosed before pregnancy was linked with about 50% of the birth defect categories analyzed.

What level of blood sugar affects baby?

Based on a study of more than 23,000 women in nine countries, Metzger and an international group of 50 experts concluded a fasting blood sugar level of 92 or higher, a one-hour level of 180 or higher on a glucose tolerance test or a two-hour level of 153 or higher on a glucose tolerance test constitute serious risks to …

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Why do babies born to diabetic mothers have respiratory distress syndrome?

Babies born pre-term are at an increased risk of respiratory distress, which is difficulty breathing. The excess insulin in the baby’s body can delay production of the surfactant required for lung maturation. These babies require assistance in order to breathe until their lungs have matured and strengthened.